, together with silicone rubber, silicone oil and silicone resin, are called four major categories of organic silicone materials. Structurally, small molecule silicones whose main chain is -Si-OC-structure are generally referred to as functional silanes
, while small molecule intermediates and polymer macromolecules whose main chain is -Si-O-Si-structure is called siloxane or polysiloxane, that is, silicone rubber, silicone oil, silicone resin and other silicone compounds.
Functionally, functional silanes
are mostly hybrid structures. Most products contain both polar and non-polar functional groups in the same molecule. They can serve as interface bridges between inorganic and organic materials or directly participate in the crosslinking of organic polymeric materials. The combination of reactions, which greatly improve the material properties, is a very important and very versatile additive.
Functional silanes have the following different classification methods:
according to the relative substitution positions of active organic groups and Si, it can be divided into two types: γ-substitution and α-substitution;
according to the hydrolyzable group functionality, it is divided into trifunctional and difunctional, of which trifunctional accounts for the majority of the market;
according to the type of substituents, there are more classifications, among which sulfur-containing groups, amino groups, alkenyl groups, epoxy groups, and methacryloxy groups are domestically produced and consumed;
according to the use, it can be divided into two major categories: coupling agent and crosslinking agent.
There are many kinds of silanes, and their uses are mainly determined by the type and structure of functional groups. The main application fields include rubber, composite materials, coatings, plastics, adhesives and other fields. Silane is mainly used in tire processing in rubber. The composite material mainly refers to the interface treatment between the inorganic material and the organic material. Adhesives mainly refer to the use of crosslinkers for room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber and other non-silicone adhesives. Plastics mainly refer to polyolefin processing applications. Other industries such as textiles, coatings, inks, cultural relics protection, etc. are also involved.